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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material - a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, [1] or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves , other growing tissues, and the roots. Wood may also refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel , as a construction material , for making tools and weapons , furniture and paper.

Examples of this kind of wood are alder[17] basswood[18] birch[17] buckeye, maple, willowand the Populus species such as n, cottonwood and poplar. In temperate softwoods, there often is a marked difference between latewood and earlywood. The latewood will be denser than that formed early in the season. When examined under a microscope, the cells of dense latewood are seen to be very thick-walled and with very small cell cavities, while those formed first in the season have thin walls and large cell cavities.

The strength is in the walls, not the cavities. Hence the greater the proportion of latewood, the greater the density and strength. In choosing a piece of pine where strength or stiffness is the important consideration, the principal thing to observe is the comparative amounts of earlywood and latewood. The width of ring is not nearly so important as the proportion and nature of the latewood in the ring. If a heavy piece of pine is compared with a lightweight piece it will be seen at once that the heavier one contains a larger proportion of latewood than the other, and is therefore showing more clearly demarcated growth rings.

In white pines there is not much contrast between the different parts of the ring, and as a result the wood is very uniform in texture and is easy to work. In hard pineson the other hand, the latewood is very dense and is deep-colored, presenting a very decided contrast to the soft, straw-colored earlywood. It is not only the proportion of latewood, but also its quality, that counts.

In specimens that show a very large proportion of latewood it may be noticeably more porous and weigh considerably less than the latewood in pieces that contain less latewood. One can judge comparative density, and therefore to some extent strength, by visual inspection. No satisfactory explanation can as yet be given for the exact mechanisms determining the formation of earlywood and latewood. Several factors may be involved. In conifers, at least, rate of growth alone does not determine the proportion of the two portions of the ring, for in some cases the wood of slow growth is very hard and heavy, while in others the opposite is true.

The quality of the site where the tree grows undoubtedly affects the character of the wood formed, though it is not possible to formulate a rule governing it. In general, however, it may be said that where strength or ease of working is essential, woods of moderate to slow growth should be chosen. In ring-porous woods, each season's growth is always well defined, because the large pores formed early in the season abut on the denser tissue of the year before.

In the case of the ring-porous hardwoods, there seems to exist a pretty definite relation between the rate of growth of timber and its properties. This may be briefly summed up in the general statement that the more rapid the growth or the wider the rings of growth, the heavier, harder, stronger, and stiffer the wood. This, it must be remembered, applies only to ring-porous woods such as oak, ash, hickory, and others of the same group, and is, of course, subject to some exceptions and limitations.

In ring-porous woods of good growth, it is usually the latewood in which the thick-walled, strength-giving fibers are most abundant. As the breadth of ring diminishes, this latewood is reduced so that very slow growth produces comparatively light, porous wood composed of thin-walled vessels and wood parenchyma. The latewood of good oak is dark colored and firm, and consists mostly of thick-walled fibers which form one-half or more of the wood.

In inferior oak, this latewood is much reduced both in quantity and quality. Such variation is very largely the result of rate of growth.

Wide-ringed wood is often called "second-growth", because the growth of the young timber in open stands after the old trees have been removed is more rapid than in trees in a closed forest, and in the manufacture of articles where strength is an important consideration such "second-growth" hardwood material is preferred.

This is particularly the case in the choice of hickory for handles and spokes. Here not only strength, but toughness and resilience are important. The effect of rate of growth on the qualities of chestnut wood is summarized by the same authority as follows:. In the diffuse-porous woods, the demarcation between rings is not always so clear and in some cases is almost if not entirely invisible to the unaided eye.

Conversely, when there is a clear demarcation there may not be a noticeable difference in structure within the growth ring. In diffuse-porous woods, as has been stated, the vessels or pores are even-sized, so that the water conducting capability is scattered throughout the ring instead of collected in the earlywood. The effect of rate of growth is, therefore, not the same as in the ring-porous woods, approaching more nearly the conditions in the conifers. In general it may be stated that such woods of medium growth afford stronger material than when very rapidly or very slowly grown.

In many uses of wood, total strength is not the main consideration. If ease of working is prized, wood should be chosen with regard to its uniformity of texture and straightness of grain, which will in most cases occur when there is little contrast between the latewood of one season's growth and the earlywood of the next. Structural material that resembles ordinary, "dicot" or conifer timber in its gross handling characteristics is produced by a number of monocot plants, and these also are colloquially called wood.

Of these, bamboobotanically a member of the grass family, has considerable economic importance, larger culms being widely used as a building and construction material and in the manufacture of engineered flooring, panels and veneer. Another major plant group that produces material that often is called wood are the palms.

Of much less importance are plants such as PandanusDracaena and Cordyline. With all this material, the structure and composition of the processed raw material is quite different from ordinary wood.

The single most revealing property of wood as an indicator of wood quality is specific gravity Timell[20] as both pulp yield and lumber strength are determined by it. Specific gravity is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of water; density is the ratio of a mass of a quantity of a substance to the volume of that quantity and is expressed in mass per unit substance, e. The terms are essentially equivalent as long as the metric system is used.

Upon drying, wood shrinks and its density increases. Minimum values are associated with green water-saturated wood and are referred to as basic specific gravity Timell Age, diameter, height, radial trunk growth, geographical location, site and growing conditions, silvicultural treatment, and seed source all to some degree influence wood density. Variation is to be expected. Within an individual tree, the variation in wood density is often as great as or even greater than that between different trees Timell The following tables list the mechanical properties of wood and lumber plant species, including bamboo.

Wood properties: [22] [23]. Bamboo properties: [24] [23].

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It is common to classify wood as either softwood or hardwood. The wood from conifers e. These names are a bit misleading, as hardwoods are not necessarily hard, and softwoods are not necessarily soft. The well-known balsa a hardwood is actually softer than any commercial softwood. Conversely, some softwoods e.

There is a strong relationship between the properties of wood and the properties of the particular tree that yielded it. The density of wood varies with species. The density of a wood correlates with its strength mechanical properties. For example, mahogany is a medium-dense hardwood that is excellent for fine furniture crafting, whereas balsa is light, making it useful for model building.

One of the densest woods is black ironwood. Aside from water, wood has three main components.

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It is mainly five-carbon sugars that are linked in an irregular manner, in contrast to the cellulose. Lignin confers the hydrophobic properties reflecting the fact that it is based on aromatic rings.

These three components are interwoven, and direct covalent linkages exist between the lignin and the hemicellulose. A major focus of the paper industry is the separation of the lignin from the cellulose, from which paper is made.

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In chemical terms, the difference between hardwood and softwood is reflected in the composition of the constituent lignin. Hardwood lignin is primarily derived from sinapyl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol. Softwood lignin is mainly derived from coniferyl alcohol. Aside from the lignocellulosewood consists of a variety of low molecular weight organic compoundscalled extractives. The wood extractives are fatty acidsresin acidswaxes and terpenes.

The extraction of these organic materials from wood provides tall oilturpentineand rosin. Wood has a long history of being used as fuel, [29] which continues to this day, mostly in rural areas of the world. Hardwood is preferred over softwood because it creates less smoke and burns longer.

Adding a woodstove or fireplace to a home is often felt to add ambiance and warmth. Wood has been an important construction material since humans began building shelters, houses and boats. Nearly all boats were made out of wood until the late 19th century, and wood remains in common use today in boat construction.

Elm in particular was used for this purpose as it resisted decay as long as it was kept wet it also served for water pipe before the advent of more modern plumbing. Wood to be used for construction work is commonly known as lumber in North America. Elsewhere, lumber usually refers to felled trees, and the word for sawn planks ready for use is timber.

Today a wider variety of woods is used: solid wood doors are often made from poplarsmall-knotted pineand Douglas fir. New domestic housing in many parts of the world today is commonly made from timber-framed construction. Engineered wood products are becoming a bigger part of the construction industry. They may be used in both residential and commercial buildings as structural and aesthetic materials.

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In buildings made of other materials, wood will still be found as a supporting material, especially in roof construction, in interior doors and their frames, and as exterior cladding. Wood is also commonly used as shuttering material to form the mold into which concrete is poured during reinforced concrete construction. A solid wood floor is a floor laid with planks or battens created from a single piece of timber, usually a hardwood. Since wood is hydroscopic it acquires and loses moisture from the ambient conditions around it this potential instability effectively limits the length and width of the boards.

Solid hardwood flooring is usually cheaper than engineered timbers and damaged areas can be sanded down and refinished repeatedly, the number of times being limited only by the thickness of wood above the tongue.

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Solid hardwood floors were originally used for structural purposes, being installed perpendicular to the wooden support beams of a building the joists or bearers and solid construction timber is still often used for sports floors as well as most traditional wood blocks, mosaics and parquetry.

Engineered wood products, glued building products "engineered" for application-specific performance requirements, are often used in construction and industrial applications.

Glued engineered wood products are manufactured by bonding together wood strands, veneers, lumber or other forms of wood fiber with glue to form a larger, more efficient composite structural unit. These products include glued laminated timber glulamwood structural panels including plywoodoriented strand board and composite panelslaminated veneer lumber LVL and other structural composite lumber SCL products, parallel strand lumberand I-joists.

Wood unsuitable for construction in its native form may be broken down mechanically into fibers or chips or chemically into cellulose and used as a raw material for other building materials, such as engineered wood, as well as chipboardhardboardand medium-density fiberboard MDF. Such wood derivatives are widely used: wood fibers are an important component of most paper, and cellulose is used as a component of some synthetic materials.

Wood derivatives can be used for kinds of flooring, for example laminate flooring. Wood has always been used extensively for furnituresuch as chairs and beds. It is also used for tool handles and cutlery, such as chopstickstoothpicksand other utensils, like the wooden spoon and pencil.

Further developments include new lignin glue applications, recyclable food packaging, rubber tire replacement applications, anti-bacterial medical agents, and high strength fabrics or composites. Moisture content electronic monitoring can also enhance next generation wood protection. Wood has long been used as an artistic medium. It has been used to make sculptures and carvings for millennia. Examples include the totem poles carved by North American indigenous people from conifer trunks, often Western Red Cedar Thuja plicata.

Many types of sports equipment are made of wood, or were constructed of wood in the past.

This year we hope to bring you plenty of Soul O only events such as speed dating nights, wine tastings, sunday sessions, and plenty more opportunities to meet sincere people who are genuinely seeking to start a relationship. The Cedar & Pine Bookclub is held on the last Thursday of each month, to discuss a good book amongst good food, good /5. Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, and gsscthunder.com process is known as secondary growth; it is the result of cell division in the vascular cambium, a lateral meristem, and subsequent expansion of the new cells. Speed Dating REGISTRATION. Name * Name. First Name. Last Name. Email Address * Phone * Gender * Female. Male. Age Bracket * Tell us something about yourself (optional) Thank you! Back to Top. Cedar & Pine Bar

For example, cricket bats are typically made of white willow. The baseball bats which are legal for use in Major League Baseball are frequently made of ash wood or hickoryand in recent years have been constructed from maple even though that wood is somewhat more fragile. NBA courts have been traditionally made out of parquetry. Many other types of sports and recreation equipment, such as skisice hockey stickslacrosse sticks and archery bowswere commonly made of wood in the past, but have since been replaced with more modern materials such as aluminium, titanium or composite materials such as fiberglass and carbon fiber.

One noteworthy example of this trend is the family of golf clubs commonly known as the woodsthe heads of which were traditionally made of persimmon wood in the early days of the game of golf, but are now generally made of metal or especially in the case of drivers carbon-fiber composites.

Little is known about the bacteria that degrade cellulose. Symbiotic bacteria in Xylophaga may play a role in the degradation of sunken wood; while bacteria such as AlphaproteobacteriaFlavobacteriaActinobacteriaClostridiaand Bacteroidetes have been detected in wood submerged over a year. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Sapwood wood. For small forests, see Woodland. For wood as a commodity, see timber. For other uses, see Wood disambiguation.

Fibrous material from trees or other plants. For other uses, see Wooden disambiguation and Heartwood disambiguation.

Main article: Growth rings. Record, The Mechanical Properties of Wood [9]. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Janka hardness test. Main article: Wood fuel. Main article: Wood flooring.

Main article: Engineered wood.

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Trees portal. Cambridge University Press. August 12, Archived from the original on August 13, Retrieved August 12, Bibcode : Sci Archived from the original on March 29, Retrieved March 28, The Mechanical Properties of Wood. Shigo and Trees, Associates. Archived from the original on December 11, Archived from the original on March 13, Archived from the original on August 10, The mechanical properties of wood, including a discussion of the factors affecting the mechanical properties, and methods of timber testing.

Archived from the original on March 15, Department of Agriculture, Forest Products Laboratory. General Technical Report Madison, WI. Compression wood in gymnosperms. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Wood density in conifers. Commonwealth For. Bureau, Oxford, U.

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Madison, WI: U. Retrieved November 3, Retrieved November 2, Boerjan; J. Ralph; M. Baucher June Plant Biol. Kuckurek; Jef A. Pyiatte; Elizabeth E. Wright Kraft Pulping. A Compilation of Notes. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. October 12, Alternative Fuels and the Environment.

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CRC Press. Materials for Interior Environments. Archived from the original on June 27, Archived from the original on March 19, Bibcode : PLoSO History of botany. Plant morphology glossary. Cell wall Phragmoplast Plastid Plasmodesma Vacuole.

Plant physiology Materials. Evolution Ecology. Agronomy Floriculture Forestry Horticulture. Botanical terms Botanists by author abbreviation Botanical expedition. Category WikiProject. Have you heard of the website gsscthunder.com. A FREE site, no fees as the website makes money from the group organisers.

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